Category Archives: Politics Law Society

Politics Law Society

OLG Karlsruhe: Pre-formulated tie-in clause in employment contract for managing director

OLG Karlsruhe: Pre-formulated tie-in clause in employment contract for managing director

OLG Karlsruhe: Pre-formulated tie-in clause in employment contract for managing director

According to a ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Karlsruhe [Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe], clauses in an employment contract for a managing director stating that removing the managing director simultaneously terminates the employment contract may be invalid.

In the case of a GmbH managing director, a distinction needs to be made between two different legal relationships. On the one hand, the managing director is appointed by the general meeting of the shareholders and assumes the status of an executive body. On the other hand, he also has an employment relationship with the company. What this means in practice is that both legal relationships have to be brought to an end separately, i.e. the managing director needs to be removed from his position by the general meeting of the shareholders and the employment relationship must be terminated. GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte notes that this can give rise to a situation whereby the managing director has already been removed from his post and no longer acts on behalf of the company but nonetheless continues to benefit from certain entitlements arising from the employment relationship, e.g. continued payment of wages.

To avoid this situation, employment contracts for managing directors often include so-called „Kopplungsklauseln“ (tie-in clauses) stating that the employment relationship ends in the moment that the managing director is removed from his position. Notwithstanding this, these clauses may be invalid according to a ruling of the OLG Karlsruhe from October 25, 2016 (Az.: 8 U 122/15). This is certainly the case if the clauses were pre-formulated by the company and not the product of a distinct agreement between the company and the managing director.

The Court held that these kinds of clauses are to be viewed as general terms and conditions, and are invalid because they fail to take into account the minimum notice periods. The OLG went on to say that an agreed notice period of less than four weeks is invalid. It also ruled that these tie-in clauses cannot be interpreted restrictively as meaning that following removal of the managing director from his post the employment relationship ends upon expiry of the statutory minimum notice period.

These kinds of pre-formulated tie-in clauses can be find in numerous employment contracts for managing directors. This can result in problems for companies, as the employment relationship with the managing director does not then come to an end once he is removed from his position. The ruling shows that employment contracts for managing directors ought to be prepared with the utmost care and, as the case may be, re-examined with a view to invalid clauses. In these cases, the relevant pre-formulated clauses should be replaced with individual agreements. Lawyers who are experienced in the field of company law can advise businesses and managing directors on issues in relation to the drafting of contracts.

http://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/company-law/managing-director.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

BAG: Exceptional notice of dismissal effective if there is video evidence

BAG: Exceptional notice of dismissal effective if there is video evidence

BAG: Exceptional notice of dismissal effective if there is video evidence

Even covert video footage can potentially justify exceptional notice of dismissal. That was the verdict of the Bundesarbeitsgericht (BAG), Germany“s Federal Labour Court, in its judgment of September 22, 2016 (Az.: 2 AZR 848/15).

That being said, the BAG also placed restrictions on the extent to which covert video footage can be used. The Court held that encroachments in the form of concealed video surveillance on privacy law with respect to an employee“s rights in relation to his own image are permissible if the following conditions are met: there are specific grounds for suspecting that a criminal act or some other kind of serious transgression to the detriment of the employer has occurred, less radical measures for the purposes of pursuing this suspicion have been exhausted to no end, covert video surveillance is thus virtually the only remaining measure and is all in all not disproportionate. With this ruling, the BAG confirmed the decision of the Landesarbeitsgericht (LAG) Düsseldorf [Regional Labour Court of Düsseldorf] (Az.: 7 Sa 1078/14).

In the instant case, a supposed insignificant sum of three euros and 25 cents cost a deputy branch manager her job. She had repeatedly put a disposable bottle with a refundable deposit through the scanner and pocketed deposit money amounting to three euros and 25 cents without giving up the empty bottle. We at GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte note that it is not the comparatively minor loss that was decisive in terms of the effectiveness of the exceptional notice of dismissal but rather the breach of trust on the part of the employee.

The deposit fraud came to light by chance. The employer had noticed excessively high inventory losses. In coordination with the works council, the checkout area was subject to covert video surveillance for two weeks. Although it was two other employees who were under suspicion, the video footage convicted the deputy branch manager, who subsequently received both exceptional and, in the alternative, ordinary notice of dismissal.

Her action for unfair dismissal later failed before the court of last instance. The BAG confirmed that tampering with the checkout constitutes good cause justifying exceptional notice of dismissal. It went on to say that it did not come down to the extent of the losses and that it had been permissible to make use of the video footage because all other less radical means of investigating the losses had been exhausted to no end. Furthermore, it was said to be irrelevant that the employee in question was not originally under suspicion.

Effectively terminating an employment contract can prove to be challenging. Lawyers who are versed in the field of employment law can advise on drafting employment contracts, notices of dismissal, severance packages as well as in relation to other issues pertaining to employment law.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/employment-law.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

Competition law: Goods on display must feature total price on label

Competition law: Goods on display must feature total price on label

Competition law: Goods on display must feature total price on label

The final cost of goods on display needs to be readily apparent to customers. According to a recent ruling of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Hamm [Higher Regional Court of Hamm], quoting only part of the price constitutes a violation of competition law.

The instant case before the Oberlandesgericht Hamm concerned an exhibition piece at a furniture store. The store had furnished a set of couches with a price tag featuring a notice stating that accessories were available for delivery in return for payment of an extra charge. The exhibited items pertaining to the set were listed on the back of the price tag with unit prices. This resulted in a substantial increase in the price of the furniture on display.

An association dedicated to combatting unfair competition took legal action against this, arguing that this price labelling was in breach of competition law. It demanded that the exhibitor refrain from labelling the goods on display with prices that do not match the final cost.

The action was successful. In its ruling of March 21, 2017, the OLG Hamm held that the price labelling in question contravened competition law and violated the so-called „Preisangabenverordnung“ [Price Quotation Ordinance] (Az.: 4 U 166/16). The Court ruled that pursuant to the Ordinance the vendor had been obligated to quote total price of the exhibition piece, as the furniture store had made a variant offer in its exhibition rooms concerning the fittings, which appeared to consumers to represent a uniform portfolio of services. The notice stating that accessories were available for delivery in return for payment of an extra charge was said not to change this fact. On the contrary, this notice could be understood by consumers to mean that further accessories above and beyond those featured in the variant offer were available for delivery.

The Court went on to say that the furniture store had been obliged to quote the final cost of the piece of furniture on display, concluding that it was not enough to refer to additional sums on the back of the price tag and thus leave the customer having to calculate the final cost for himself.

We at GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte wish to point out that pursuant to the Preisangabenverordnung a vendor of goods or services is obligated in price quotations directed at consumers to include VAT plus any additional price components in the total price. In other words, the customer needs to be able to immediately identify how much purchasing the goods would cost him.

Violations of competition law may be met with sanctions, including formal written warnings, injunction suits or claims for damages. Lawyers who are versed in the field of competition law can fend off or enforce claims arising from a violation of competition law.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/intellectual-property-law-and-trademark-law/competition-law.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

Terminating employment relationship and prior formal warnings

Terminating employment relationship and prior formal warnings

Terminating employment relationship and prior formal warnings

Formal written warnings play an important role in the field of employment law, with one often being a prerequisite to the employer effectively terminating an employment relationship.

Generally speaking, a prior formal warning is necessary if the reason cited for terminating the employment relationship relates to the conduct of the employee in question, i.e. in cases of dismissal on grounds of conduct. Notwithstanding this, a formal written warning needs to meet certain criteria if it is to be judged a formal warning from a legal perspective. Merely reprimanding the employee is not sufficient for this purpose.

A formal warning needs to explicitly refer to the employee“s misconduct. Generalized statements that the employee is in breach of his obligations as laid out in the employment contract are not enough; the conduct that is the subject of the formal warning needs to be described in detail. If, for instance, the employee frequently turned up to work late, the employer must be able to reference this misconduct including the relevant dates and times. The employer must also clearly admonish the employee“s conduct as a violation of the employment contract as well as make it clear that this behaviour will not continue to be tolerated and that dismissal is possible if the employee fails to change his behaviour going forward. The formal warning must therefore serve as notice of the misconduct and at the same time as a warning to the employee of the potential consequences under employment law.

Furthermore, employers ought to realize that waiving the option of issuing a formal written warning in relation to misconduct may be interpreted as tacit consent to this behaviour and thus as an amendment to the employment contract.

A formal warning is supposed to give the employee the opportunity to change his behaviour and not put the employment relationship at risk. That being said, the employer“s patience need not be endless, it not being compelled to issue repeated formal warnings before finally issuing notice of dismissal on grounds of conduct. It ought to be noted, however, that the reason cited for dismissal needs to match that cited in the formal warning. Otherwise, the formal warning is not relevant.

In cases involving compulsory redundancy or dismissal on grounds of personal capability, a prior formal warning is typically not necessary due to the fact that there is no misconduct on the part of the employee here.

Lawyers of the law firm GRP Rainer LLP, who are experienced in the field of employment law can advise employers on matters pertaining to formal warnings, dismissal as well as in relation to other legal issues.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/employment-law.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

Purchase of further tax CDs possible – Voluntary disclosure for tax evasion

Purchase of further tax CDs possible – Voluntary disclosure for tax evasion

Purchase of further tax CDs possible - Voluntary disclosure for tax evasion

Since 2010, the German exchequer has reeled in a nationwide total of around six billion euros by way of voluntary declarations for tax evasion. For tax dodgers, voluntary disclosure remains the only way out.

While the number of voluntary declarations has gone done noticeably in recent months, this should in no way give tax evaders a false sense of security. The cross-border fight against tax evasion continues. In the period since suspicions were raised concerning the possibility of a Swiss agent having spied on German tax investigators, North Rhine-Westphalia“s Finance Minister, Norbert Walter-Borjans, has disclosed to the newspaper Rheinische Post that the regional government will not be intimidated and that it was not ruling out purchasing more CDs containing information on tax evaders as part of the fight against tax evasion.

In light of the automatic exchange of financial information, tax dodgers should also be worried about their illicit earnings in foreign accounts being detected by the tax authorities. As a consequence, the risk of tax evasion being uncovered followed by the threat of severe penalties continues to go up. The only means of returning to a state of tax compliance is voluntary disclosure leading to immunity. However, this is only possible if the tax evasion has not yet been discovered. In addition to being submitted on time, the voluntary declaration also needs to be both complete and error free for it to be capable of succeeding.

For this reason, it is almost impossible for a layperson to submit an effective voluntary declaration without expert assistance. For those who nevertheless attempt to do so on their own or with the help of standard templates, they are running the risk of the voluntary declaration failing. The complex processes involved simply cannot be accounted for in this way. A voluntary declaration must always be tailored to the specific circumstances. Even minor errors can result in the voluntary declaration failing, with the prospect of a conviction for tax evasion then still on the horizon. In this case, voluntary disclosure can only have a mitigating effect on sentencing.

To prevent this from happening, lawyers and tax advisors who are experienced in the field of tax law can be consulted. GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte takes the view that each case of tax evasion is unique and it is therefore necessary for the voluntary declaration to take into account the respective circumstances. There is no such thing as a ready-made voluntary declaration. It needs to be tailored to the specific circumstances of a given case. Only then can it succeed and lead to immunity.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/tax-law/voluntary-disclosure.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

Reform of law governing challenges to debtor“s transactions in insolvency proceedings

Reform of law governing challenges to debtor“s transactions in insolvency proceedings

Reform of law governing challenges to debtor"s transactions in insolvency proceedings

The reform of insolvency law is meant to bolster the rights of creditors in the event that a business partner becomes insolvent as well as provide greater legal certainty.

Insolvency law foresees the possibility for the insolvency administrator to recover payments made by the insolvent debtor prior to becoming insolvent. This has resulted in payees being faced with legal uncertainty and sometimes disproportionate burdens. The reform of the law governing challenges to debtor“s transactions in insolvency proceedings is supposed to strengthen the position of creditors and ensure greater legal certainty.

The case law of the Bundesgerichtshof, Germany“s Federal Supreme Court, had also contributed to the uncertainty among many creditors that had received payments prior to one of their business partners becoming insolvent. In some cases, these creditors had to reckon with the insolvency administrator reclaiming the payments if, for instance, they had allowed the debtor to make payments in instalments. This was viewed as an indication that they were aware of their business partner“s imminent insolvency and nonetheless accepted money, which the insolvency administrator then reclaimed.

The reform to this aspect of insolvency law is meant to afford greater protection to creditors. The presumption that creditors were aware of the impending insolvency when granting payment relief has now been reversed, i.e. it is assumed that the creditor was not aware of this. This presumption must then be rebutted by the insolvency administrator. Thus, challenges to debtor“s transactions brought by the insolvency administrator will only be possible if the creditor knew that the debtor was definitely insolvent.

In addition, the period for filing such a challenge has been reduced. If a creditor has received security or satisfaction, the period for bringing a challenge will now no longer extend to ten years but instead only four.

Furthermore, the legislature has tightened the requirements in relation to challenges to wilfully disadvantageous cash transactions. These challenges will now only be possible if the creditor was aware that the debtor acted unfairly or dishonestly. Moreover, interest will only begin to accrue if the party opposing the challenge is in default of payment and not as early as the opening of insolvency proceedings.

The reform of insolvency law does not completely do away with legal uncertainty. Lawyers who are experienced in the field of company law can advise both debtors and creditors in the event of insolvency.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/company-law/restructuring-insolvency.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte – Assessing trademark violations

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte – Assessing trademark violations

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte - Assessing trademark violations

Protecting your brand is crucial. One ought to take resolute action against trademark violations. That being said, you should first assess whether a trademark violation has in fact occurred.

Trademarks result in greater brand recognition among consumers and are accordingly of great significance to businesses. It is therefore all the more important to seek protection for one“s own brand and take a rigorous approach to trademark violations. Having said that, it is also important to exercise caution. First of all, a thorough assessment should always be conducted looking at whether a trademark violation has in fact occurred, otherwise a formal warning or similar measures may backfire. The law firm GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte can evaluate whether a brand or mark is capable of being registered, whether a trademark violation has occurred and take appropriate legal measures.

In the case of a supposed trademark violation, an in-depth factual and legal investigation needs to be carried out first, i.e. before a formal warning is issued, for instance. In the absence of this kind of thorough investigation, a formal warning may be negligent and thus also result in culpability. This, in turn, can give rise to claims for damages brought by the company that was wrongfully admonished, for example in relation to any costs incurred or restrictions on competition.

To avoid these kinds of unnecessary legal disputes, the first step is to assess the areas and regions in relation to which a brand should be registered and protected. Marks that are capable of distinguishing one“s goods or services from those of competitors can be registered. The next thing that needs to be determined is whether a mark“s protection should apply domestically, within the EU or beyond. At the same time, it is also important when registering a trademark to ensure that this will not infringe existing third-party trademark rights.

Following an assessment into whether a trademark violation has in fact occurred, if the protected trademark has been violated then appropriate legal measures can be taken. These can be in the form of formal written warnings, injunction suits or damages claims.

Lawyers who are experienced in the field of intellectual property law are your qualified point of contact when it comes to protecting one“s brand and asserting claims in response to trademark violations or, conversely, fending off unjustified claims.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/intellectual-property-law-and-trademark-law/trademark-law.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

OLG Köln: Heir must be defined with sufficient clarity in will

OLG Köln: Heir must be defined with sufficient clarity in will

OLG Köln: Heir must be defined with sufficient clarity in will

Testators need to define their heirs with sufficient clarity in wills, because the will might otherwise be invalid. That was the verdict of the Oberlandesgericht (OLG) Köln [Higher Regional Court of Cologne] in its ruling of November 14, 2016 (Az.: 2 Wx 536/16).

By drafting a will, the testator is able to circumvent the rules of intestate succession and personally appoint his heir. While it is not absolutely necessary for the heir to be designated by name, it must at least be possible to reliably identify him. Accordingly, the wording of the will ought to be unambiguous. As demonstrated by the ruling of the Oberlandesgericht Köln, the will might otherwise be invalid.

In the instant case, a married couple had drafted a joint will. This stated that the person who accompanied and cared for the last of the spouses to pass away would become the sole heir („derjenige, der den zuletzt verstorbenen Ehegatten begleitet und gepflegt hat, der Alleinerbe sein soll“). The husband was the first to pass away, and following his death it was his brother who took care of the widowed wife. He organized, among other things, his brother“s burial, dealt with official correspondence as well as the tax declaration. Moreover, he provided his sister-in-law with psychological support and managed her medical care. He therefore applied for the certificate of inheritance. However, the brother of the since deceased wife resisted this, claiming that the will was not sufficiently precise and that he had cared for his sister and visited her regularly. He went on to say that the brother-in-law had not performed any care or nursing services.

The OLG Köln held that the testatrix“s brother-in-law had not become the heir, ruling that the will was not sufficiently precise and unambiguous and did not clearly designate an heir. The Court stated that a testator needs to have made up his mind regarding the content of all of the key components of his final will. This includes, in particular, the designation of the beneficiary. The Court went on to say that while it is not necessary for this person to be designated by name, it must be possible to reliably identify the beneficiary based on the content of the testamentary disposition having regard, as the case may be, to circumstances beyond the deed in question. According to the OLG, said person needs to be defined in such a way that any form of arbitrariness on the part of third parties is excluded. It noted that this was not the case here, concluding that the wording gave no indication as to the nature or scale of any care.

Lawyers who are experienced in the field of succession law can advise on all matters pertaining to wills or contracts of inheritance.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/private-clients/law-of-succession/last-will-and-testament.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte – Experience in asserting exceptional notice of dismissal

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte – Experience in asserting exceptional notice of dismissal

GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte - Experience in asserting exceptional notice of dismissal

Exceptional notice of dismissal needs to be thoroughly prepared. The law firm GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte has the necessary experience when it comes to asserting exceptional notice of dismissal.

Unlike in the case of ordinary notice of dismissal, there are no notice periods that need to be observed when issuing exceptional notice terminating an employment relationship. This can be done without notice. That being said, exceptional notice of dismissal with immediate effect is only possible if there is good cause justifying this. Labour courts frequently have to rule on whether exceptional notice of dismissal has been issued effectively. In doing so, the courts balance the employer“s interest in bringing the employment relationship to an immediate end and the employee“s interest in continuing said relationship, at least until the next possible termination date pursuant to the ordinary notice period. Exceptional notice of dismissal is only effective if the employer“s interest outweighs that of the employee. Thus, this is ultimately always a decision that is made on a case-by-case basis.

For this reason, it is all the more important for employers to be able to properly justify their decision to issue exceptional notice of dismissal. GRP Rainer Rechtsanwälte has a great deal of experience in the field of employment law and can assess whether dismissal with immediate effect makes sense or whether milder measures ought to be taken beforehand.

Good cause is a prerequisite for exceptional notice of dismissal. This normally relates to serious breaches of duty on the part of the employee. This kind of breach of duty may have occurred, for instance, if an employee fails to perform his work as agreed in his employment contract, conducts himself in an offensive manner vis-à-vis his superiors and / or colleagues, or in the event of physical altercations. The bottom line is that it must no longer be reasonable to expect the employer to continue the employment relationship any longer without having to observe the ordinary notice period of dismissal.

The courts also review whether the employer could have had recourse to milder means as a way of drawing the employee“s attention to his breaches of duty and encouraging him to change his conduct. The first step that typically comes into consideration in doing so is to issue a formal written warning. If the employee does not react to the formal warning as hoped, it may, depending on the given circumstances, nevertheless be sufficient to issue ordinary notice of dismissal having regard to the relevant notice periods. In the case of exceptional notice of dismissal, the employer needs to demonstrate that it had no other option and that continuing the employment relationship would have been unreasonable.

Lawyers who are experienced in the field of employment law can advise employers when legal disputes arise pertaining to the workplace.

https://www.grprainer.com/en/legal-advice/employment-law.html

GRP Rainer LLP www.grprainer.com/en/ is an international firm of lawyers and tax advisors who are specialists in commercial law. The firm counsels commercial and industrial companies and corporations, as well as associations, small- and mid-sized businesses, self-employed freelancers and private individuals worldwide from offices Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and London UK.

Kontakt
GRP Rainer LLP
Michael Rainer
Augustinerstraße 10
50667 Cologne
+49 221-27 22 75-0
+49 221-27 22 75-24
info@grprainer.com
http://www.grprainer.com/en

Politics Law Society

Using FCS is like a turbo booster for Forensics

With growing complexities in digital forensics an efficient investigation can become quite a limited assignment.

Using FCS is like a turbo booster for Forensics

Digital evidence has to be extracted and analyzed so that it makes sense

Law enforcement and border protection often needs to deal with digital evidence hidden in hard drives, smartphones or small flash devices. Extracting the data is only one step inside the long journey to proving guilt or getting ahead criminals before they can complete their crimes.

This is where ACATO is working on providing the 360 degree command system that will empower investigators and forensic laboratories to not only get more out of their existing toolsets but also create an opportunity to go beyond standard procedures.

Making the world a safer place is the mission of ACATO. In order to improve the status quo the development of the „forensic command suite“ is more than just some connectivity tool.

It consists of specialized modules that can deal with different aspects of crime. It helps to identify best approach for chipoffs. Analyzing of large quantities of manipulated videos using special features is done before then going in deep with 3rd party tools so that one can see if the sampling has delivered some red herrings.

The tool can automatically find files hidden in many locations of a drive based on the settings of the researcher. Furthermore this does not stop at locating hidden data inside other files. A separate module focuses on identifying types of digital attacks.

In some cases, financial crimes can be done using obfuscated identities. A special feature can analyze data in relation to a variety of codes that can show hidden identities. The accompanying databases assist the system in dealing with workflows that are needed to respond to particular criminal strategies.
Since money laundry is also a side crime accompanying the main crime this requires to blow away the fog that has been deliberately placed in financial transactions to fool researchers. In field of investment related fraud and misrepresentation, the FIA module helps to deal with joint venture fraud and mutual fund investments that can also be in a form of direct investment in a venture.

The Financial Investment Audit Inspection tool can work with a large amount of investment transactions to identify false profitability claims and tax evasion. Nevertheless, these tools still require well trained officers to make the game changer in their area of operation.

This forensic command suite is not a tool designed to spy on the public. It is supposed to help investigators protect the society against criminal activities. Nevertheless, this tool is only exclusively available to authorities and large enterprises that have a specialized team of forensics experts.

ACATO provides forensic laboratory services for courts, lawyers, accused, police forces and companies around the world. It help extract evidence from locked, damaged or deleted smartphones.

Kontakt
ACATO GmbH – International Forensic Services
Chris Bartsch
Heimeranstr. 37
80339 München
0049 89 54041070
presse@acato.de
https://www.acato.org